As the Earth revolves around the Sun, it appears as if
the Sun is moving across the background of distant stars. These stars
are the nearby bright stars in the Milkyway Galaxy. They appear to be
immmovable, but they do move, and this change is observed over
thousands of years.
The apperant path followed by the Sun, Moon and the Planets in the
night sky, is divided into 27 equal parts. In each part, the major
stars are clubbed into groups called Nakshatra or constillation. The 27 Nakshatras are divided into 12 groups of 2 or 3 to make 12 Months.
The Lunar Month starts one day after new moon to next new moon. The 15 phases of waning & 15 phases of waxing moon: Shukla Paksh & Krishna Paksh make up two parts of the Month. Each day of the fortnight called tithi and is numbered from 1 to 15. The Lunar month is approximately 29 days.
||Lunar Month Name
||Hasta & Chitraa
||Swaati & Vishakhaa
||Anuradhaa, Moolaa, Jyeshthaa
||Poorvaa Shaadhaa & Uttaraa Shaadhaa
||Shravan, Dhanishthaa & Shatataarakaa
||Poorvaa & Uttaraa Bhadrapadaa & Revati
||Ashwini & Bharani
||Kruttikaa & Rohini
||Mrugaaa & Aardraa
||Punarvasu & Pushyaa
||Aashleshaa & Maghaa
||Poorvaa, Uttaraa Phalguni |
Lunar Year is the passage of the
(full) Moon through the constillations. It is made up of 12 full moons
(months). That makes the year approximately 354 days.
Solar year is the passage of the Sun through the 12 Rashi's
(zodiac signs). The Solar year is about 365.25 days. The Lunar year is
about 10 days shorter than Solar year. When the accumulated difference
between the Solar year and Lunar year exceeds 29 days, an extra month
Adhika maas is added to the lunar year. This occurs once in 2.5 years.
This extra month is attributed to the constillation Abhijit.
The Lunar year and the Solar year synchronise with each other in exactly 18 years.
60 Year cycle
A cycle of 60 years is
measured. Each year has a name. Thus a person born in Vaibhava
Samvatsar, will be 60 years old in the next Vaibhava Samvatsar. Here
are the names of the 60 years:
||60. Akshaya |
The 12 Signs
The Solar year begins with Vernal Equinox, on or
about March 21. The twelve months, known as the Saur Maas, correspond
to the entry of the Sun into the signs of the Rashi (Zodiac Signs). The
twelve Rashis are:
||12. Meena |