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Measuring Time

The time is measured from 0.2 seconds to 8.7 billion years! The age of Solar system is about 4.5 billion years and the Universe is about 13.7 billion years old. It is amazing that more than 7,000 years ago sages could comprehend such huge values and appreciate time (kaal) as "anant"! 

 
1 Nimish
= @ 0.213 sec Time required to blink an eye.
1 Kastha = 15 Nimish  
1 Kaal = 30 Kastha  
1 Muhurta = 30 Kaal  
1 Day = 30 Muhurta 15 for the day and 15 for the night.
1 Month = @ 29 Days The Lunar Month starts one day after new moon to next new moon. The Lunar month is approximately 29 days.
1 Year = 12 Months. Lunar Year is approximately 354 days. Solar year about 365.25 days. When the accumulated difference between the Solar year and Lunar year exceeds 29 days, an extra month Adhika maas is added to the lunar year.
1 Samvatsar  60 Years.  A 60 year cycle. 
Yug Ganana:      
   SatyaYug = 1,440,000 years
   TretaYug = 1,080,000 years
   DwaparYug = 720,000 years
   KaliYug = 360,000 years
   Sandhi kaal = 720,000 years Period between two yugas
1 MahaYug = 4,320,000 years 1 cycle of Satya, Treta, Dwapar & Kali Yug.
1 Manvantr = 71 MahaYug The number of years in the Yugas vary in different sources. But the total of all the Yugas (MahaYuga) comes to 4,320,000 years in each account.
1 Kalpa = 14 Manvantr (Jan 2000 CE is year 5102 of the Kali Yug of 28th MahaYug, of 7th Manvantr, of 1st Kalpa.)
1 Brahama day = 2 Kalpa (approx 8.7 billion years). One Kalpa for day, one Kalpa for night.
1 Nimish of Vishnu = 100 years of Brahma
1 Nimish of Rudra = 100 years of Vishnu (how many years is that???!!!)

Another basis for time measurement is with help of 4 Mandala's: Chandra, Pruthvi, Surya, and Parmeshthi. Each Mandala denotes the time required for a revolution around its parent.

  • Chandra Mandala: is revolution of the Moon around the Earth. Time it measures is a Month.
  • Pruthvi Mandala: is revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Time it measures is a Year.
  • Surya Mandala: is revolution of the Sun around the Centre of the Milky Way. Time it measures is a Manvantar. @300 million years (by modern sciences this figure is @250 million years)
  • Parmeshthi Mandala: is revolution of the Milky Way around Brahmanda (Universe?) Time it measures is a Kalpa 8.7 billion years.
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