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Sanskrit Roots

Pronunciation Roots:

The basic set of consonants common to most Indian languages have been categorized according to their source in the body. (Throat, Palate, teeth, lips etc.) The 5 Varga (groups) are: ka, kha ga, gha, gn; ch, cha, ja, jha, yn, t, th, d, dh, n; T, Th, D, Dh, N; and p, ph, b, bh, m. In each Varga the last consonant is nasal. When an Anuswar (n / m) preceedes a consonant, it represents the nasal sound of that Varga.
Thus the words: anga, sanchit, santha, aNDa, amba.
Similar pronunciation is seen in English: anguish, puncture, anthropology, aND, ambiguity.
Nasal sound before hard D, T is pronunced as hard N: as in Andrew, saint, sand, wand.
Nasal sound before soft d, t is pronunced as soft n: as in synthesis.
Nasal sound before before g is pronunced as: song, single, swing, anger.
Nasal sound before b, p is pronounced as m: as in amplify, symbiosys, simple.
 

 Me and mine ...

 Sanskrit English 
 ma  me
 swa  self
 tva  thou, you
 matru  mother 
 pitru  fater (pater) 
 bhraatra  brother 
 swasar  sister 
 suunu  son
 duhiter  daughter
 

Geometry ...

 kon (angle)  octa-gon, penta-gon (8 angled, 5 angled etc.)
 miti (measure)  metric, meter, measure (latin metiri)
 tri-kona-miti  trignometry
 gouh (earth)  geometry, geography (greek geos)
 lok (place)  location, locus, locale
 tatra  there 
 

Numbers ...

 
ek (one or same)  equal   
 dvi (two)  duet, dual, double, duo   
 tri (three)  three, triple   
 chatur (four)  quarter, quarternary, quadrate    
 panch (five)  pentagon  
 sapta (seven)  septulets, septagon   
 ashta (eight)  eight, octagon  
 nav   nine    
 dasha (ten)  decagon, decade  
 shatam (hundred)  century, centipede (latin centum)  
 
 

Prefixes and postfixes:

 
The postfix 'er' in words like: sonar, kumbhar etc. indicate the occupation.
 
Same postfix is seen in English: teacher, farmer, worker etc. indicate the occupation.
 
The prefix 'a' makes opposties meaning. Example: mruta-amruta, karma-akarma, swacha-aswacha.
 
 

Mind and Body:

 manav  man, men   
 yuva  youth, young  
 manas  mind, mental
 mukh (face)  Mouth (old english muth) 
 kapal (head)  as in per "capita", captain, capital  
 bhru  brow 
 akshi (eye)  occipital, occular  
 nasika  nose, nostril, nasal
 danta (tooth)  dental, denture    
 hrid  heart 
 janu  knee (french genou) 
 pad (feet)  pedicure, pedestrian, centipede   
 sweda  sweat 
 

Actions ...

 asti  ist, is (greek esti)
 bandha (bind)  bind, bandage
 ga  go 
 gam  come 
 hanta (kill)  hunt 
 hara (destroy)  harass 
 iccha, isha (to wish)  wish 
 jan (produce offspring, born)  generate, genocide 
 kath (say, talk)   quote 
 

Others ...

 antar inter-national, interior 
 madhya  middle, mediocre, moderate 
 ant  end 
 dama (home) domicile, domestic 
 dana  donate
 dev (god)  divine  
 dwar  door 
 gow  cow 
 kaal (time)  calendar (latin kalendae) 
 maas (month)  month
 mooshak  mouse 
 mruta (death)  mortal, murder, mortuary (latin mortalis) 
 na  no 
 nawa  new 
 path  path 
 raaj (king, rule)  rich, regal, regulate
 sama  same 
 sarpa  serpent 
 sharkara  saccharin, sucrose, sugar
 smit  smile 
 swadu  sweet 
 taru  tree 
 tat  that 
 vak, vaacha  voice, vocal
 vastra (clothing)  vestura 
 veda, vidya (from vid) (knowledge)   wit, wise (from vid) 
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