625 CE Map

Modern India: North Indian kingdoms were united under Harsha Vardhan. Famous Chalukyas ruled the Deccan. Kashmir was under the rule of Karkota Dyanasty. Religions that prospered were: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and various Tribes.

Modern Pakistan, Afghanistan and Persia: Sassanian Empire was first defeated in 632 at the banks of Euprates by Islamic forces. By 650 CE, most of Iran was under Islamic rule. Many Persians came to Mumbai (Bombay) to seek refuge in Chalukya's kingdom. Epilogue: Zoroastrianism was eventually wiped out of Persia and it remained alive in India.

Religions: Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.

In the following century Islam grew out of Arabia and was soon at the edge of Sindhu.
 

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