Chalukya Dynasty 425 - 753 AD
After Satvahan, the next great empire in the Deccan was the Chalukya empire. Pulakesin I
first ruler of the Chalukya dynasty, founded Vatapi (modern Badami in
Bijapur district) and made it his capital. His sons extended the
boundaries of the Chalukya kingdom.
Pulakesin II was the greatest ruler of the Chalukya dynasty.
He consolidated his authority in Maharashtra and conquered large parts
of the Deccan. His greatest achievement was his victory against
Harshvardhan in 620. However, Pulakesin II was defeated and killed by
the Pallava king Narasimhavarman in 642. His capital Vatapi was
His son Vikramaditya who was also as great a ruler as
his father succeeded Pulakesin. He renewed the struggle against
Pallavas and recovered the former glory of the Chalukyas. In 753, his
great grandson Vikramaditya II was overthrown by a chief named Dantidurga.
Chalukyas erected about 100 temples at Aihole. Some Ajantha
caves were also built during this period. Chalukya kings gave refuge to
many Persians in Bombay.
Dantidurga laid the foundation of Rashtrakuta empire.
The Rashtrakuta's empire was the most powerful of the time. They ruled
from Lattaluru (Latur), and later shifted the capital to Manyaketa
Amoghavarsha (814-880AD) is the most
famous Rashtrakuta kings. His long reign was distinguished for its
royal patronage of Jainism and the flourishing of regional literature.
Indra III, great-grandson of Amoghvarsha defeated the Pratihar king
Mahipala. Krishana III was the last great king of Rashtrakuta dynasty.
Rashtrakutas were great patrons of art
and architecture. Krishana I, uncle of Dantiduraga built the Kailasa
Temple at Ellora. The caves at Gharapuri (Elephanta near Mumbai) were
also built by this dynasty.
During Rashtrakutas rule, the Chalukyas were a minor
power. For 200 years, they survived the Rashtrakutas. In 973AD Tailap
Chalukya of the Kalyani branch gained power and restored the Chalukyan
rule. They gained supremacy for about 200 years to be partitioned into:
Yadavs of Deogiri, Kaktiyas of Warangal and Hoysalas of Belur.
Yadavas extended their authority over a large territory. Their capital was situated at Chandor (Nasik district). They built the Deogiri fort in 11th century. Raja Bhillamraj further fortified Deogiri, and made it his capital.
In 1294, when Ramadeorao Yadav was ruling at
Deogiri, Alla-ud-din Khilji laid four sieges to Deogiri. Finally, the
Yadavas were defeated and the strong fort of Deogiri fell into the
hands of Muslim rulers. The riches of Deogiri were looted. By 1310 the
Yadav rule came to an end.
Marathi language received the status of a court language in Yadava rule. Sant Dnyaneshwar belonged to this age. The Yadava king Singhana was great patron of learning. He established the college of astronomy to study the work of Bhaskaracharya.