slave, khilji, tughlak, saiyyad

715 - 1761 - summary 950 - 1343 - kashmir 1206 - 1290 - slave 1290 - 1320 - khiljis 1320 - 1414 - tughlak 1345 - 1819 - islamic kashmir 1414 - 1451 - sayyaid 1451 - 1500 - lodhi 1500 - 1707 - mughals 1708 - 1849 - sikh
1336 - 1565 - vijaynagar 1346 - 1689 - bahamani 1390 - 1947 - mysore 1640 - 1818 - maratha peshwa 1733 - 1947 - holkar

Slave Dynasty 1206-1290AD

Ghuri left his Indian possessions in the care of his former slave, General Qutb-ud-din Aibak. On the death of his master, Aibak became an independent king. He started building the Qutub Minar, which was completed by Tughalaqs.

Iltutmish (1210-1236AD), son-in-law of Aibak, succeeded Aibak as the sultan by defeating Aibak's son. During his last years, Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya (1236-1239 AD) to the throne. In order to assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brothers as well as against powerful Turkish nobles. She successfully established law and order in her kingdom. In 1239 AD, an internal rebellion broke out in which Raziya was imprisoned and killed.

The struggle between the monarchy and Turkish chiefs continued till one of the Turkish chiefs Balban (Ulugh khan) (1265-1285 AD) ascended the throne. After Balban's death Jalaluddin Khilji, snatched the throne from Balban's weak successor.

Khiljis 1290-1320 AD

Jalaluddin Khilji, established the Khilji rule, by displacing Slave dynasty. Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316AD) murdered his uncle and father-in-law, Jalaluddin. He was ambitious and dreamt of an all India empire. Over a twenty five years period, Malwa, Gujarat and Rajasthan was brought under his control. His famous general Malik Kafur led the campaign (1308-1312AD) to the south. By defeating the Yadavas, Kakityas and the Hoysalas nearly the wole of south India came under Khilji rule. Mongols invaded India atleast three times during Khilji rule. Alladin-Khilji defeated them each time.

Alauddin Khilji was attracted to Chitor because of Rani Padmini the beautiful wife of Rana Ratan Singh. Alauddin defeated the Rana, to gain Padmini. But by the time he reached Chitor, the queen had performed Jowhar.

Alauddin was an able adminstrator. He repelled the Mongol invasions successfully. He introduced price control. He banned drinking of intoxicants. To face water shortage in summer, he built many wells.

Kings followed in quick succession after his death. In 1320, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq revolted and put an end to the Khilji dynasty.

Tughlaq Dynasty

In 1320, Ghyasuddin extended the territories of the Delhi sultanate upto Madurai. Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq succeeded his father and extended the kingdom beyond India, into Central Asia. Mongols invaded India during Tughlak rule, and were defeated this time too.

One fine day, Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq suddenly decided to shift the capital to Deogiri (Aurangabad). Not only the capital, but he also forced the entire Delhi civil population to migrate south. Old and sick people died during this march. After a short span of 17 years he rounded them up and marched them back to Delhi!

During his regin, in 1334 plague wiped out more than half his army. Seizing this opportunity, Pandyas and Kaktiyas rejected his sultanate. The great kingdoms of Vijayanagara and Bahamani kingdoms were founded.

The sultanate became weak and in 1398, the Mongols, under the leadership of Timur, mercilessly sacked Delhi. Timur returned to central Asia leaving his nominee to rule in the Punjab.

Sayyid Dynasty: 1414-1451 AD

The Tughlaq dynasty ended soon after the Timurs invasion. Timurs nominee captured Delhi and was proclaimed the new sultan and the first of Sayyid Dynasty. Their rule was short-lived and confined to area around Delhi.