715 - 1761 - summary 950 - 1343 - kashmir 1206 - 1290 - slave 1290 - 1320 - khiljis 1320 - 1414 - tughlak 1345 - 1819 - islamic kashmir 1414 - 1451 - sayyaid 1451 - 1500 - lodhi 1500 - 1707 - mughals 1708 - 1849 - sikh
1336 - 1565 - vijaynagar 1346 - 1689 - bahamani 1390 - 1947 - mysore 1640 - 1818 - maratha peshwa 1733 - 1947 - holkar

Turkish Regime

800BC?: Zaratushtra establishes the Zoroastrian(Parsee) religion.
550BC: Zoroastrian Cyrus establishes Achaemenian empire that extended from Greece to Sindhu. The most famous of these kings was Darius.
330BC: Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great. Alexander's generals rule Persia for some years. They are replaced by Parthian rulers. Parthians are Zoroastrian too.
211BC The great Sassanians (Zoroastrian) establish their rule in Persia. The Sassanians are constantly at war with the Romans.
630AD Early 7th century sees the rise of Islam. In 630s the Arabs (Islamic rulers of Arabia) defeat Romans. Romans retreat to east and fight Arabs for nearly 700 years. In 1453, Turk Ottoman defeats the Roman Byzantine rule and annexes Turkey from them.
630AD Arabs defeat the Sassanians too. All the locals of Persia are forcibly converted to Islam. A small group of Zoroastrians leaves for Mumbai, where Chalukya kings give them refuge.
715AD Mohammad Bin Qasim leads the Arabs to invade Sindh. Raja Dabir ruler of Sindh, has given refuge to many Sassanian princes. Qasim defeats Raja Dabir and the neighboring king of Multan too. Their progress to west is checked by a defeat in Malwa. For the next 300 years, the Pratihars and the Gujara kings are successful in keeping the Arab power at bay.
1000AD Muhmmad of Gazni defeats the Hindushahi kings of Peshawar and the Muslim ruler of Multan. He raids India 17 times in 25 years. He raids Nagarkot, Thanesar, Kanauj, Mathura, and richest of all the Somnath temple in Gujarat. It is believed that he killed 50,000 Hindus who defended Somnath. The riches of his loot helped him build lavish palaces and mosques in Gazni.
1190AD Muhammad of Ghur is defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan the ruler of Delhi. Ghuri returns prepared next year; defeats and captures Prithviraj. Delhi falls into the hands of invaders. In 1194AD Muhammad Ghuri defeats and kills Jaichandra. The whole of Northern India comes under Islamic rule. Muhammad Ghuri leaves his ex-slave General Qutbuddin Aibak to rule in Delhi and returns to Ghur.
1398AD Timur (Timar Lane), sacks Delhi and Mathura. The Tughlak power is devasted by this attack. Timur leaves his nominee to rule in Punjab.
1739AD Persian Nader Shah invades Delhi. Already weak Mughal power is crushed by this attack.
1761AD Ahemad Shah Abdali attacks North India. In the battle of Panipat, Peshwas defeat Ahemad Shah Abdali. He suffers great losses in this battle, and returns to Persia. The Peshwas suffer a hard blow.

Internal confilcts failed to keep Rajputs united. Jaichandra's daughter Sanyogita, married his rival Prithviraj. Despite, Prithiviraj's plea for help, Jaichandra remained in Ghadwal when Prithviraj was defeated by Ghuri. Two years later, Ghuri defeated Jaichandra too ...

Prithviraj Chauhan was the last Hindu King to rule in Delhi. After which started the saga of destruction of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain religion. Thousands of monks, priests, sadhus, common men & women were mercilessly killed. Thousands were converted to Islam, at the point of the sword. Non-muslims had to pay extra taxes like Jazia, and pilgrimage tax. Statues of Hindu gods and sculptures were destructed.

About 60,000 Hindu temples were destroyed through out the Islamic rule. Roughly 3,000 were converted into Masjids. (Example the Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Babri Masjid of Ayodhya.) The Hindu temples were built in deep forests during this time (example Bhimashankar in Maharashtra), so that they were safe from Muslim attack.

After the Senas of Bengal were defeted (1250s) the Buddhist University of Nalanda was destroyed. 9 million scriptures in the University were burned. It is said that the university burned for months! The place where Astronomy, Physics, Medicine, Philosophy, Theology, Mathematics, Sanskrit and Grammar were taught, the place where students from all over Asia came to learn, all that remained were ruins.

Kings like Akbar, Jehangir and Shah Jahan were exceptions, who were tolerant to all beliefs. By 1707 AD, nearly 1000 years after the first Islamic invasion, Hindus under Marathas had nearly put an end to the Islamic rule in India.

Within 200 years, Arabs had wiped out the original religions of North Africa, Western Europe and Central Asia. They came to India with the same intention. But even after 700 years of tyrannical rule, they did not succeed.

Hindushahi: 717 - 920AD
Kabul valley and Gandhara (modern Afghanistan and Pakistan) was occupied by Turko-Hephthalic kings. Because of spread of Hinduism in these kingdoms, they were popularly known as Hindu Shahi kings.

Byzantine Empire: 330 - 1453AD
Greek speaking, Orthodox Christians of this Empire called themselves Romans. They are identifed as Byzantium, after the original name of the capital city Constantinople.

In 1204, a large Crusading army attacked and partially destroyed Constantinople. In 1453, Ottomans captured Constantinople. They began its conversion to a Turkish city by converting the famous Hagia Sophia church into a mosque. (This mosque was recently converted into a museum.)

Turks also closed the trade route between Europe and India which was through Constantinople. This led the daring Europeans find the sea route to India. Protugese Vasco-da-Gama found the sea-route to India via Cape of Good Hope. Columbus went west to find sea route to India, but reached the American shores. Europeans established their colonies in South Asia and the Americas